Temporal range: Late Jurassic
|An artist's illustration of Torvosaurus gurneyi|
Galton & Jensen, 1979
Galton & Jensen, 1979
Torvosaurus (Greek, “savage lizard”) was a large megalosaurid theropod from the late Jurassic Lourinhã and Morrison Formations of 145 million years ago. It was one of the largest known Jurassic theropods, along with Saurophaganax, Edmarka, Megalosaurus, and a few others. It is estimated to grew between 9 to 11 meters (27 to 36 feet) long, weighed between 2.5 and 4 tons, and it was one of the largest carnivores to inhabit the Earth until the Late Jurassic.
In Portugal, it may have been the top predator. In Africa and North America there were some theropods that could challenge and present interspecies conflict; such as Saurophaganax and Veterupristisaurus, as well as more dubious theropod species such as Epanterias.
Torvosaurus was a very large predator, with an estimated maximum body length of 10 m (33 ft) and mass of 3.6–4.5 tonnes (4–5 short tons) for both T. tanneri and T. gurneyi, making Torvosaurus among the largest land carnivores of the Jurassic. Claims have been made indicating even larger sizes. The synonymous Edmarka rex was named thus because it was assumed to rival Tyrannosaurus rex in length. Likewise "Brontoraptor" was supposed to be a torvosaur of gigantic size. The T. gurneyi specimens from Portugal initially prompted larger size estimates to be made. In 2006 a lower end of a thighbone, specimen ML 632, was referred to Torvosaurus sp. and later to T. gurneyi. This specimen was initially stated to indicate a length of 11 m (36 ft). Applying the extrapolation method of J.F. Anderson, correlating mammal weights to their femur circumference, resulted in a weight of 1930 kilogrammes. However, revised estimates performed in 2014 suggested a slightly smaller total body size for this specimen, of about 10 m (33 ft). Among the differentiating features between T. gurneyi and T. tanneri are the number of teeth and size and shape of mouth. While the upper jaw of T. tanneri has more than 11 teeth, that of T. gurneyi has less.
The fossil material refered to Torvosaurus includes partial post cranial remains and elements of the skull and the maxilla.
In 2013, a nest with fossilized embrious was found in Portugal. Paleontologists assigned them to Torvosaurus gurneyi. These are the oldest theropod eggs ever found in the world.
Fossilized remains of Torvosaurus have been found in North America, Portugal, Germany, and possibly also England, Tanzania, and Uruguay. The first discovered remains referable to Torvosaurus were discovered in 1899 by Elmer Riggs in the "Freeze-out Hills" of southeastern Wyoming. The specimen was assigned to Torvosaurus tanneri after being redescribed in 2014. More remains of a large theropod that is now believed to have been Torvosaurus were discovered in the Tendaguru Formation of Tanzania.
In 2000, fossils of some theropod were discovered in Portugal. Octávio Mateus and Miguel Antunes assigned these fossils as of Torvosaurus sp. In 2006, the fossils were assigned to the type species, Torvosaurus tanneri. Finally, in 2014, Mateus and Hendrickx recognized the Portuguese Torvosaurus as being a of a new species, different from the type species, nowadays only known from North America. The Portuguese Torvosaurus is now credited as belonging to Torvosaurus gurneyi, a species named in honour of James Gurney, who is best known for his work creating the "Dinotopia" series of illustrated books.
One could find odd the discovery of the same genus of dinosaur in what are now two separate continents. However, during the late Jurassic, the Atlantic Ocean was just starting to form and, consequently, animals (and, of course, dinosaurs) could walk between the continents, at certain times. In fact, Torvosaurus isn´t the only genus of dinosaur to be found in both continents: Allosaurus, Ceratosaurus and Stegosaurus are also found in Portugal. This is why researchers consider the Lourinhã Formation to be analogous to the more famous Morrison Formation.
Torvosaurus was a huge theropod for its time, and probably fed on large sauropods like Diplodocus and Dinheirosaurus (now a species of Supersaurus) and stegosaurs like Stegosaurus and Miragaia. It probably also preyed on the smaller carnivores from time to time as well. It had long, muscular legs and mid-sized arms, good for gripping and holding onto prey. It also had a long, narrow skull, probably used to go in and repeatedly bite at larger herbivores.Torvosaurus grew larger in Europe than in North America,the Torvosaurus found in North America were of individuals that grew up to 9 meters long. The specimen found in Portugal was of an individual that exceded 11 meters (36 feet) in length. Unlike most other large theropods, Torvosaurus seemed to have thicker teeth, where others have thin, blade-like teeth, which may suggest it had a stronger bite force than most other theropods its size.
Another large theropod called Edmarka is known to have stalked North America during the Jurassic, though there is speculation that Edmarka might actually be the same dinosaur as Torvosaurus, an idea that has increased in popularity in recent years.
In Popular Culture
- In the introduction of Torvosaurus was in the 1993 Knowledge Adventure game, 3-D Dinosaur Adventure. Though it does not appear in any illustrations or in the game's movie clips, it can be seen in the park attraction, Jurassic Jungle, where it fights against an Allosaurus. The computer-generated model is based off of a Carnegie model.
- The same model of Torvosaurus also appears in the game's Museum and interactive game, Create-A-Saurus.
- Torvosaurus was featured in a documentary called Dinosaur Revolution aka Dinotasia, where it fought over territory with a smaller, younger Allosaurus named Broken Jaw, until it tried to attack a young, injured Dinheirosaurus and is killed by its parent after fighting with the Allosaurus. Then the Broken jaw Allosaurus devours the Torvosaurus. Later then, the remains of the great predator were seen dried up.
- Torvosaurus has also made an appearence in the 2nd Season of Dinosaur King.
- Torvosaurus made an appearance in the Roblox game called "Dinosaur Simulator."
- Torvosaurus will appear in Prehistoric Kingdom, an upcoming park builder game by Blue Meridian.
- Dinosaur Revolution