Pulmonoscopius BW
A restoration of Calcancora venusta
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Chelicerata
Class: Arachnida
Order: Scorpiones
Family: Centromachidae
Genus: Pulmonoscorpius
Jeram, 1994
Species: P. kirktonensis
Binomial name
Pulmonoscorpius kirktonensis
Jeram, 1994

Pulmonoscorpius kirktonensis meaning "breathing scorpion", was a giant scorpion that could grow up to 70 centimeters (28 inches) that lived in the visean epoch of the carboniferous. Its fossils were discovered at East Kirkton, West Lothian in Scotland in 1994, and it was named by Andrew J. Jeram.  

Pulminoscorpius was most likely predator like all species of scorpion today. Although we don't know exactly what Pulmonoscorpius ate, it likely would have eaten smaller invertebrates and possibly primitive tetrapods. Pulmonoscorpius would probably have killed using it the venom in its tail this is inferred because it had small pincers and a thick tail which generally means that it killed by poisoning its prey. It hunted by ambushing it's prey and then stinging it's prey until it died, it then would have then sucked all its bodily fluids.

It is also probable that Pulmonoscorpius had good vision (for a scorpion) because of its abnormally large eyes.

Pulmonoscorpius as also an unusual species of scorpion because scorpions generally live in jungles, forests, rain forests, mountains and deserts but not in swamps where Pulmonoscorpius lived.

It is very likely that Pulmonoscorpius grew so large because of an abundance of oxygen in the atmosphere caused by the large amount of trees in the carboniferous.


Size of a pulmonoscorpius



Description and taxonomy[]

In the Media[]

  • Pulmonoscorpius has appeared several times in pop culture such as in documentaries and miniseries like Prehistoric Park from BBC, Where Nigel Marvin tries to save, but gets stung by one, and both succeeds and survives, and in video games like ARK: Survival Evolved (with a vastly exaggerated size).

Pulmonoscorpius as it appears in Prehistoric Park


Pulmonoscorpius as it appears in ARK: Survival Evolved