Ngandong Tiger
Temporal range: Pleistocene
A life restoration of Panthera tigris soloensis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Felidae
Genus: Panthera
Species: P. tigris
Subspecies: P. t. soloensis
Trinomial name
Panthera tigris soloensis
Von Koenigswald, 1933

The Ngandong tiger, official name: panthera tigris solensis is larger than any modern tiger/lion or cave lion being slightly smaller than the American & Mosbach lions.

The reason for its large size was due to the presence of larger competitors like the giant hyena and large prey animals which where found in abundance. The tiger was as long 7.6 feet without tail and 13.5 ft. It could have measured maximum of 4 feet at the shoulder. Unlike its northern cousin the panthera tigris acutidens (wahsein tiger) which lived in the southern China, this cat lived in the southern region (Java and surrounding area). This region formed a part of mainland asia but after the tectonic event it got isolated and most of the animal species sizes are reduced, due to island dwarfism.[1][2]

It is known from a collection of very few specimens. Like the wahsein tiger, it is not well known to the public.

Extinction Theory[]

The reason for its extinction has been debated.


Fossils of the Ngandong tiger were excavated primarily near the village of Ngandong, hence the common name. Only seven total fossils are known, making study of the animal extremely difficult.[3]


The few remains of the Ngandong tiger suggest that it would have been about the size of a modern Bengal tiger. However, given the size of other remains, it may have been larger than a modern tiger. Heltler and Volmer (2007) estimated that a large male could have weighed up to 470 kg (1,040 lb), in which case, it would have been heavier than the largest extant tiger subspecies, and similar in size to Smilodon populator and Panthera atrox, rendering it, along with these two other cats, among the largest felids ever known to have lived![4][5][6][7][8]


In addition to the remains of the Ngandong tiger, many other fossils from the same era have been discovered in Ngandong, like the proboscideans Stegodon trigonocephalus and Elephas hysudrindicus, the bovines Bubalus palaeokerabau and Bos paleosondaicus, the extant perissodactyls Tapirus indicus and Rhinoceros sondaicus, and a great variety of cervine species. Homo erectus soloensis fossils are also known from the area.[9]


Ngandong Tiger/Gallery