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Edmontosaurus
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous
A restoration of Edmontosaurus regalis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Sauropsida
clade: Dinosauria
Order: Ornithischia
Suborder: Ornithopoda
Family: Hadrosauridae
Subfamily: Saurolophinae
Tribe: Edmontosaurini
Genus: Edmontosaurus
Lambe, 1917
Type species
Edmontosaurus regalis
Lambe, 1917
Referred species
  • Edmontosaurus annectens (Marsh, 1892)
Synonyms
  • Anatosaurus Lull & Wright, 1942
  • Anatotitan Chapman & Brett-Surman, 1990

Edmontosaurus (ed·mon·to·saur·us) was a genus of large Hadrosaur ornithopod from the Late cretaceous of North America 73- 66 mya (Campanian to Maastrichtian). It contains the 2 known species: E. regalis and E. annectens. ossils of E. regalis have been found in rocks of western North America that date from the late Campanian stage of the Cretaceous Period 73 million years ago, while those of E. annectens were found in the same geographic region but in rocks dated to the end of the Maastrichtian stage of the Cretaceous, 66 million years ago

Edmontosaurus was some of the largest Hadrosaur genera, being up to 12 m (40 ft) long and weighing about 4 tonnes (4.4 short tons). Evidence does exist in the form of two fossilized specimens in the Museum of the Rockies for an even greater maximum size of 15 m (49 ft) and weighing 9.07 metric tons (10.00 short tons) Edmontosaurus annectens. A few well-preserved specimens are known that include not only bones, but in some cases extensive skin impressions and possible gut contents. It is classified as a genus of saurolophine (or hadrosaurine) hadrosaurid, a member of the group of hadrosaurids which lacked large, hollow crests, instead having smaller solid crests or fleshy combs.

The first fossils named Edmontosaurus were discovered in southern Alberta (named after Edmonton, the capital city), in the Horseshoe Canyon Formation (formerly called the lower Edmonton Formation). The type species, E. regalis, was named by Lawrence Lambe in 1917, although several other species that are now classified in Edmontosaurus were named earlier. The best known of these is E. annectens, named by Othniel Charles Marsh in 1892; originally as a species of Claosaurus, known for many years as a species of Trachodon, and later as Anatosaurus annectens. Anatosaurus, Anatotitan and Ugrunaaluk are now generally regarded as synonyms of Edmontosaurus.

Edmontosaurus was widely distributed across western North America. The distribution of Edmontosaurus fossils suggests that it preferred coasts and coastal plains. It was a herbivore that could move on both two legs and four. Because it is known from several bone beds, Edmontosaurus is thought to have lived in groups, and may have been migratory as well. The wealth of fossils has allowed researchers to study its paleobiology in detail, including its brain, how it may have fed, and its injuries and pathologies, such as evidence for tyrannosaur attacks on a few edmontosaur specimens.

Discovery and history

Edmontosaurus has had a long and complicated history in paleontology, having spent decades with various species classified in other genera. Its taxonomic history intertwines at various points with the genera Agathaumas, Anatosaurus, Anatotitan, Claosaurus, Hadrosaurus, Thespesius, and Trachodon, and references predating the 1980s typically use Anatosaurus, Claosaurus, Thespesius, or Trachodon for edmontosaur fossils (excluding those assigned to E. regalis), depending on author and date. Although Edmontosaurus was only named in 1917, its oldest well-supported species (E. annectens) was named in 1892 as a species of Claosaurus.

Description

Classification

Paleobiology

Paleoecology

Specimens

In popular culture

  • A hadrosaur skull can be seen among the pile of bones in the Tyrannosaurus rex nest in The Lost World: Jurassic Park. Jurassic Park Legacy members long concluded that it belonged to the genus Anatotitan, which is now classified as Edmontosaurus annectens. It is unknown if Edmontosaurus was on Isla Sorna or was even recreated by InGen before Jurassic World in the Movie canon.
    • According to the computer game, Tresspasser, Hammond's memoir confirm that in the early progress of Jurassic Park half of the 13 species that originally were bred for the Park failed to adjust to their new ecosystem on, Isla Sorna (Site-B) and once more went extinct.
      • Because Tresspasser serves as canonical continuity to the film The Lost World: Jurassic Park, this would confirm that among the 13 original species, the Edmontosaurus was indeed one of them. The cause of its re-extinction is uncertain, but a suggestion is that due to stress of the new environment, new plant sources and the increase in predator population, this is what likely caused its extinction before the events of the film series.
  • Edmontosaurus made an appearence in Jurassic Fight Club being chased by a pack of Dromaeosaurus. Then after being killed, a Tyrannosaurus came to take the carcass, leaving the tail.
  • It also made an appearence in the 3rd episode of Planet Dinosaur where a herd was attack by a species of Alaskan Troodon.
  • It also appeared in March of the Dinosaurs retitled as The Great Dinosaur Escape, where it follows a juvenile Edmontosaurus called Scar, trying to find the herd after being lost after a pack of Albertosaurus attacked.
  • Edmontosaurus was one of the dinosaurs confirmed to be in Jurassic World: Evolution, according to the second in-game trailer. It looks almost exactly as the Jurassic World website version, with one difference in the game version, as it has a yellow fleshly crest on its head like in life, although more exaggerated than in life. Oddly enough the developers, Frontier for some replaced the film's Edmontosaurus annectens, which is what the website version seems to be based on instead, with the species, Edmontosaurus regalis.
    • This was change was likely to avoid any confusion the nomenclature controversy between the two species, as of today paleontologists still debate whether the referred original species is either its own genus or another species of Edmontosaurus itself, as it was namely given upon its discovery.
  • Edmontosaurus Also appeared in 2 Jurassic Park video games, The Lost World: Jurassic Park Arcade Game & Jurassic Park: Operation Genesis.
  • Edmontosaurus was seen in Ultimate Guide to T.Rex & Briefly as a carcass in the Beyond T.Rex.
  • It was seen at through the PBS Nova Documentary Arctic Dinosaurs.
  • It appears on the Jurassic World website and is stated to be in the park, but it is unfortunately never seen in the film. Edmontosaurus also fell back into extinction after the Isla Nublar Incident of 2015. But a skeleton of Edmontosaurus is seen in the Lockwood Manor in Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom.
  • It will appear in Saurian under its' old name Anatosaurus.
  • Edmontosaurus appeared in the ROBLOX game "Era of Terror" before the game was taken down for unknown reasons. It does not appear in the remake.

Gallery

Edmontosaurus/Gallery

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