Temporal range: Late Jurassic
|A restoration of Compsognathus longipes|
Compsognathus (also known as the compy) ( Greek kompsós/κομψός "elegant", "refine" or "dainty" and gnáthos/γνάθος "jaw") was a small, bipedal, carnivourous dinosaur. Its streamlined body shape allowed it to run swiftly. Only two specimens have been found. Teeth discovered in Portugal may be further fossil remains of the genus. Compsognathus' pointed head was only three inches long. The tail was longer than the head, neck, and body put together. Many presentations still describe Compsognathus as a "chicken-sized" dinosaur because of the small size of the German specimen, which is now believed to be a juvenile form of the larger French specimen, and actually grew to be the size of a turkey.
The diet is known with certainty: the remains of small, agile lizards are preserved in the bellies of both specimens. It most likely lived alongside different species of stegosaurs, sauropods, and was also probably prey to the large carnivore Megalosaurus.
Discovery and species
Although not recognized as such at the time of its discovery, Compsognathus is the first dinosaur known from a reasonably complete skeleton. Until the 1980s and 1990s, Compsognathus was the smallest known dinosaur and the closest supposed relative of the early bird Archaeopteryx. For nearly a century, Compsognathus was the only well-known small theropod. This led to comparisons with Archaeopteryx and to suggestions of a relationship with birds. The two theropods share many similarities in shape, size and proportions, so many in fact that a featherless skeleton of an Archaeopteryx was for many years misidentified as a Compsognathus.
Some relatives of Compsognathus have been preserved with the remains of simple feathers covering the body like fur, promoting some scientists to suggest that Compsognathus might have been feathered in a similar way. Consequently, many depictions of Compsognathus show it with a covering of downy proto-feathers. However, no feathers or feather-like covering have been preserved with Compsognathus fossils, in contrast to Archaeopteryx, which was found in the same sediments. In 2006, reported skin impressions preserved on the side of the tail starting at the 13th tail vertebra were found. The impressions showed small bumpy tubercles. Additional scales had earlier been reported in the abdominal region of the German Compsognathus, but this interpretation was later disproved.
In popular culture
- Compsongnathus had a fairly large role in the movie, The Lost World: Jurassic Park, where it's shown to have hunted in large packs, capable of taking down prey much larger than themselves, and even swarmed and killed one of the poachers. However, this theory was eventually proven false.
- Compsognathus appeared in Jurassic Park III, where two Compys running through the forest while T-Rex and Spinosaurus fight each other, and a whole group was seen chasing bugs while Eric and Alan are hiding in the abandoned truck.
- In the cartoon show, Dink, the Little Dinosaur, one of the main characters, a hungry little dinosaur named Scat, was a Compsognathus.
- Compsognathus is also a playable character in the online game, Primal Carnage.
- Compsognathus (shortened to 'Compy') appear in the video game ARK: Survival Evolved, shown as attacking other animals in packs.
- In the first, The Land Before Time one was scared by a Hopper (frog).
- In the tenth movie of The Land Before Time during Cera's sleep story (Dream) Compsognathus appeared and even got Sharpteeths but likes Littlefoot.
- Compsognathus appeared in the video game called Jurassic Park: The Game.
- In the film Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom it shows that some Compies are present on Isla Nublar, as they are seen running away alongside the other dinosaurs from the erupting volcano.
- Compsognathus is confirmed for Jurassic World: Evolution via the Return to Jurassic Park DLC.
- Compsognathus appears in Dino Dan, Dino Dan: Trek’s Adventures & Dino Dana as a Scavenger, Egg-Eater, and All-Time Mischief-Maker.