Smaller than a Microraptor!

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Temporal range: Miocene
A restored sketch sheet of Climacoceras africanus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Climacoceratidae
Genus: Climacoceras
MacInnes, 1936
Type species
Climacoceras africanus
MacInnes, 1936
Referred species
  • Climacoceras africanus (MacInnes, 1936)
  • Climacoceras gentryi (Hamilton, 1978)

Climacoceras was a genus of artiodactyl ungulates that lived in Africa and Europe of the early Miocene. The members of Climacoceras were related to giraffes, as the genus was once placed within Giraffidae. Fossils of the two best known species of Climacoceras, Climacoceras africanus and Climacoceras gentryi have been both found in Kenya. The animals measured about 1.5 m in height and had large ossicones resembling antlers. Climacoceras africanus had ossicones resembling tall thorn-covered plant stems, while the ossicones of Climacoceras gentryi resembled thorny crescents.

The genus was once placed within Palaeomerycidae, and then within Giraffidae, it is now considered a giraffoid and a new family, "Climacoceratidae," has been erected by Hamilton for this genus.

Other Climacoceratidae include Prolibytherium from Egypt and Libya and Orangemeryx from Namibia and South Africa.