Temporal range: Pleistocene
|A life restoration of Bison latifrons|
| †Bison latifrons|
Bison latifrons (also known as the broad-headed paleo-bison, giant Ice Age bison or long-horned bison) is an extinct species of bison that lived in North America during the Pleistocene epoch. B. latifrons thrived in North America for approximately 200,000 years, but became extinct some 20,000–30,000 years ago, at the beginning of the Last Glacial Maximum.
B. latifrons reached a shoulder height of 2.5 meters (8.2 feet) and may have weighed over 2,000 kilograms (4,400 lb). It competes with the "giant Africa buffalo" Pelorovis for the title of largest bovid, and even largest ruminant ever to live, possibly outweighing the extant African giraffe (Giraffa camelopardis). The horns of B. latifrons measured as great as 213 centimeters (84 in) from tip to tip, compared with only 66 centimeters (26 in) in modern Bison bison. The known dimensions of the species are much larger than any extant bovid, including both extant species of bison — the American bison and the European bison. Based on a comparison of limb bones between B. latifrons and B. bison, the mass of the former is estimated to have been 25%–50% greater than that of the latter. In fact, B. latifrons is possibly the largest bovid in the fossil record.