Autotrophism is scientific terminology for the action in which an organism uses inorganic materials to carry out various metabolic processes.  All autotrophs, also known as producers, use electron transport chains or direct proton pumping to establish and electrochemical gradient, which is utilized by ATP synthase, to provide molecular energy for the cell.

Kinds of Autotrophism[]

There are two separate methods of autotrophism: photosynthesis and chemosynthesis, where the former uses light as its main energy source while the latter utilizes specific chemicals. Photosynthesizers make up the vast majority of all autotrophs, and includes several clades of bacteria, archea, most protists, and all plants. There have also been cases of heterotroph organisms using horizontal gene transfer to also achieve photosynthesis, but aren't considered true autotrophs.