Temporal range: Early – Middle Eocene
Ailuravus macrurus by avancna
A restoration of Ailuravus macrurus (left) along with Strigogyps sapea (right)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Rodentia
Family: Ischyromyidae
Subfamily: Ailuravinae
Genus: Ailuravus
Rütimeyer, 1891
Species: A. macrurus
Binomial name
Ailuravus macrurus
Rütimeyer, 1891

Ailuravus (meaning "Big-tailed Cat-ancestor") is an extinct genus of primitive, squirrel-like rodent, one of the earliest known rodents, from the Messel pit Lagerstätte, in Germany. It lived during the Eocene period of Europe, in forests, and may have been arboreal.

Ailuravus is estimated to be about 3 feet long.

Ailuravus Macrurus

Ailuravus Macrurus(or A. Macrurus) skeleton