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Acanthodes
Acanthodes BW-1-
Name Acanthodes
Order Chordata
Suborder Acathoddii
Class Acanthodiformes
Name Translation Spiny Base
Period Carboniferous to Permian
Location Worldwide
Diet Filter Feeder
Size 30 centimeters long
Date of Discovery 1883

Acanthodes bronni (spiny base in greek) is a genus of spiny shark that has currently of this date, January 3rd 2019, that has 23 species. Acanthodes in comparison with other spiny sharks genera had relatively fewer spines then the average spiny shark They always have a maximum of six spines mostly present in the pectora, pelvic, anal, and dorsal fins, with file-like scales.

Description

Diet

Sense that the Acanthodes had no teeth it is thought by many to be a feeder of plankton and possibly smaller invertebrate.

Behavior

The Acanthodes may have swam in groups with each other because of the lack of defensive spines relying more on safety in numbers.

Paleobiology

The stream lined body of the Acanthodes suggests that it was a pretty fast swimmer. Study's have shown that the Acanthodes throughout it's life span doesn't change all that much in body proportions. Recently it is found that Acanthodes had color vision.[1]

Habitats and Distribution

They used to be commonly found in freshwater streams and similar environments in Europe, North America, and Australia.

Species:

  • This is a list of species assigned to the genus Acanthodes[2]:
  • Acanthodes armatus
  • Acanthodes bourbonensi
  • Acanthodes boyi
  • Acanthodes bridgei
  • Acanthodes dublinensis
  • Acanthodes flavipes
  • Acanthodes fritschi
  • Acanthodes gracilis
  • Acanthodes hebe,
  • Acanthodes kinneyi
  • Acanthodes lopatini
  • Acanthodes luedersensis
  • Acanthodes lundi
  • Acanthodes marshi
  • Acanthodes nitidus
  • Acanthodes ovensi
  • Acanthodes rufa,
  • Acanthodes ippeli
  • Acanthodes sstambergi
  • Acanthodes ulcatus
  • Acanthodes tarsata
  • Acanthodes tholeyi
  • Acanthodes wardi

Relevance and Theories

The Common Ancestor of all Jawed Vertebrates

A study written by Samuel P. Davis [3](and published by Nature) released an article about how Acanthodes may be the best view of the last common ancestor of bony fishes and sharks. Saying that the earliest bony fishes looked more like sharks then other fish. Dr. Davis created highly detailed latex molds of different species of Acanthodes, providing new data about assessing cranial and jaw anatomy as well organization of sensory, circulatory, and respiratory systems. Some of the Acanthodes species still held true about being connected too early bony fish. Others were more of a related too primitive sharks.

Nature of being of the Acanthodes Lopatini

The study done by P. A. Beznosov makes a full growth cycle of the A. lopatini. Complete with four formal stages. [4]

Counter arguments

The validity of this species is debatable sense it could be a different life stage of a previously established taxa.

Fossil Record

The collection of fossils ranges from a few bones to complete skeletons. The Acanthodes has been recorded to be the most complete fossil record of the Acanthodians. However the taxonomy of the group is commonly debated.

In popular culture

  • Acanthodes has appeared on Dinosaur Train, but as a silhouette thus far.

Gallery

References
  1. ^3[1]
  2. ^1[2]
  3. ^2[3]
  4. ^4[4]
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